Ceramic scintillators are made of simple inorganic compounds such as metal oxides or halides, whose grains are bonded together by high temperature processes. In addition to scintillators, these transparent optical ceramics have also found use as IR ray domes for missile guidance systems, laser hosts, and transparent armor windows for military vehicles. In order to be useful as scintillators, transparency is required so that the light generated by the incident ionizing radiation will be able to be detected photo electronically. Ceramics offer the following prospective advantages compared to crystal scintillators:increased flexibility in scintillator composition, lower manufacturing temperatures – potentially lowering costs by increasing yields, faster manufacturing – hours compared to days, ability to be fabricated into complex shapes if required. Dynasil produces ceramic scintillators through RMD. Please contact RMD directly to discuss your ceramic scintillator needs.
Scintillators are materials that luminesce when excited by ionizing radiation. Luminescent materials, when struck by an incoming particle, absorb its energy and re-emit the absorbed energy in the form of light. Scintillation detectors have a wide variety of uses. They be used in new energy resource exploration, X-ray security, neutron and high energy particle physics experiments, gas exploration, nuclear cameras and CT scanners in medical diagnostics. Dynasil produces many different types of scintillators through Hilger Crystals and RMD and is constantly researching the next generation of materials.
Inorganic scintillators are crystals grown in high temperature furnaces. Dynasil has furnace capacity for growing crystals at both RMD and Hilger Crystals. We work with the following scintillation crystals as well as many others and are constantly working with research partners to explore commercial applications for crystal scintillators.
- CLYC: the first practical gamma-neutron crystal for use as a replacement for both medium resolution gamma-ray detectors and Helium-3 proportional counter tubes for neutron detection.
- CsI(Tl) or cesium iodide doped with thallium: these crystals are one of the brightest scintillators. Its maximum wavelength of light emission is in the green region at 550 nm.
- CsI: undoped cesium iodide emits predominantly at 315 nm, is only slightly hygroscopic, and has a very short decay time, making it suitable for fast timing applications.
- LaBr3(Ce) (or lanthanum bromide doped with cerium): is denser, more efficient, faster, and offers superior energy resolution than NaI due to its very high light output. Moreover, the light output is very stable over a wide range of temperatures, making it attractive for high temperature applications.
- LYSO (Lu1.8Y0.2SiO5(Ce)): comparable in density to other scintillators but much faster and with much higher light output; excellent for medical imaging applications. LYSO is non-hygroscopic.
Please contact RMD directly to discuss your inorganic crystal needs.
Organic scintillators are aromatic hydrocarbon compounds which contain benzene ring structures interlinked in various ways. Some organic scintillators are pure crystals. The most common types are anthracene (C14H10), stilbene (C14H12), and naphthalene (C10H8). They are very durable, but their response is anisotropic and they cannot be easily machined, nor can they be grown in large sizes; hence they are not very often used. Dynasil manufactures organic scintillators through RMD. Please contact RMD directly to discuss your organic scintillator needs.
Plastic scintillators are a scintillating material in which the primary fluorescent emitter is suspended in a solid polymer matrix. The advantages of plastic scintillators include fairly high light output and a relatively quick signal, with a decay time of 2–4 nanoseconds, but perhaps the biggest advantage of plastic scintillators is their ability to be shaped, through the use of molds into almost any desired form. Dynasil manufactures plastic scintillators through RMD. Please contact RMD directly to discuss your plastic scintillator needs.
Inorganic crystals can be cut to small sizes and arranged in an array configuration so as to provide position sensitivity. Such arrays are often used in medical physics or security applications to detect X-rays or γ rays: high-Z, high density materials are typically preferred for this type of applications. Dynasil manufactures scintillator arrays through Hilger Crystals. Hilger can produce and package arrays for a wide variety of custom applications. Please contact Hilger Crystals directly to discuss your scintillation array needs.
Dynasil develops and manufactures vapor-grown micro columnar CsI:Tl, which has now become the standard for diagnostic digital radiography. We fabricate structured CsI:Tl screens as large as 47×47 cm2 size, and have extensive experience in micro-columnar growth of high resolution screens. Additionally, we can fabricate a number of other materials into scintillator films. This work is done through RMD. Please contact RMD directly to discuss your scintillator film needs.